Toxicological Research : eISSN 2234-2753 / pISSN 1976-8257

Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. Two defense systems against xenobiotic electrophiles. Canonical pathway: electrophiles conjugate with GSH to form electrophile-SG adducts that are rapidly excreted into the extracellular space. Nrf2 plays a critical role in the detoxification and excretion of electrophiles via GSH conjugation by initiating the transcription of GCL, GST, and MRP. Noncanonical pathway: reactive sulfur species produced by trans-sulfuration enzymes, such as CSE and CARS2, inactivate electrophiles through the formation of sulfur adducts. CARS2, cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase 2; CSE, cystathionine γ-lyase; GCL, glutamate-cysteine ligase; GST, glutathione S-transferase; MRP, multidrug resistance-associated protein; Nrf2, NF-E2-related factor 2.
Toxicological Research 2019;35:303~310
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