Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Tartrazine in Rats
Toxicological Research 2019;35:75−81
Published online January 15, 2019;  https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2019.35.1.075
© 2019 Korean Society of Toxicology.

Mohamed Mohammed Hashem1, Yasmina Mohammed Abd-Elhakim2, Khaled Abo-EL-Sooud1 and Mona M. E. Eleiwa3

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, 3Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Yasmina Mohammed Abd-Elhakim, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt, E-mail: yasmina_forensic@hotmail.com
Received: June 28, 2018; Revised: August 11, 2018; Accepted: August 30, 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Tartrazine (TAZ) is one of the most commonly used artificial dyes for foods and drugs. We determined the effect of TAZ on fetal development by examining morphological, visceral, and skeletal malformations in rat fetuses following daily oral administration of TAZ to pregnant Wistar rats at the 6th-15th day of gestation. TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced 6.0 and 7.1% fetal resorptions, as well as 10.0 and 10.5% fetal mortality, respectively. Fetal body weight and length were significantly lower in the groups treated with TAZ at 0.45 (3.97 ± 0.21 g and 27.3 ± 0.54 mm, respectively) and 4.5 mg/kg (3.48 ± 0.15 g and 23.22 ± 1.02 mm, respectively) than in the control group (4.0 ± 0.15 g and 30.01 ± 0.42 mm, respectively). TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced hepatic damage (20 and 33.3%, respectively), dark brown pigmentation due to hemosiderin in the splenic parenchyma (16.7 and 21.7%, respectively), as well as destructed and necrotic renal tubules (16.7 and 26.7%, respectively) in the fetuses. Moreover, TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg caused one or more missing coccygeal vertebrae (20 and 40%, respectively), missing sternebrae (6 and 10%, respectively), missing hind limbs (24 and 4%, respectively), and irregular ribs (16 and 20, respectively) in the fetuses. We concluded that TAZ has embryotoxic and teratogenic potentials in rats.
Keywords : Food additives, Tartrazine, Azo dye, Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity


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